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China and Chinese lived in terrors since Peng Pai and Mao Tse-tung launched rasal-proletariat peasant movements in 1927. Peng Pai had at one time claimed that communist law would be simply the execution of landlords once they were caught. Mao Tse-tung, directly responsible for the rascal movement in Hunan Prov in 1927, would be the red-handed culprits in the Purge of Anti-Bolshevik League during 1930-1931, the Purge of Trotskyists during 1937-1941, and the Rectification Movement during 1942-1945. In the caste section, we also listed CCP's bloody crackdowns, including
Suppression of Reactionaries Movement (1950),
"Three Anti" (1951),
"Five Anti" (1952),
"Three Anti" (1953),
Gao Gang Anti-Party Clique (1953-1954),
Hu Feng Anti-Party Clique (1954-1955),
Elimination of Counterrevolutionaries (1955),
Ding Ling & Chen Qixia Anti-Party Clique (1955-1958 ?),
Rectification Movement (April 27th, 1957),
Anti-Rightist Movement (June 1957),
Peng Dehuai Anti-Party Clique (1959),
Anti-Rightist Trend (1959).
Simply said, CCP never stopped its bloody terror campaigns since inception in history, and its claws could be seen in the most recent crackdown on Falungong practitioners. Wen Yu, in his 1994 book Leftist Catastrophe of China (Cosmos Books Ltd., ISBN 9622577164, 1994, HK), summarized the leftist catastrophe of Chinese Communist Party from 1927 armed uprisings to 1978 Xidan Democracy Wall. Gao Hua, a Nanking University professor whose father fled the persecutions of the cultural revolution in Aug 1966, had presented the most comprehensive research into communist red terror in the book How Did The [Red] Sun Rise Over Yan'an ? - A History Of The Rectification Movement (The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong, 2000 edition).
What was the "Cultural Revolution" about then? It was nothing other than a coup d'etat that Mao Tse-tung had initiated by having the mobsters topple Liu Shaoqi's presidency. Ao-feng pointed out that Mao Tse-tung did not convene CCP 9th Session till 1969, i.e., till after toppling Liu Shaoqi presidency. CCP 9th Session would have a deliberate elapse of 13 years since the start of 1st Plenary of CCP 8th Session in 1956. Feng Zhijun, in Mao Tse-tung & Liu Shaoqi [Huangfu International Publishing House, HK, April 1998 Edition], examined the Mao-Liu relationship in historical parallel and expounded the cause and effect of the so-called "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution", an event that would topple 76% of CCP 8th Session's politburo members and backup commissars, majority of deputy chairmen of CCP Central Military Committee, majority of deputy commissars-in-chief of National People's Congress 3rd Session, majority of premiers of the State Council, and three quarters of ministrial leaders and provincial leaders. (Alternatively speaking, Jiang Qing, i.e., Mao Tse-tung's unofficial wife, had intentionally rendered a havoc to communists internally: Zheng Yi, in "Seventy Years Of Espionage Between KMT & CCP", pointed out that both Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao were agents who had been recruited by Dai Li in 1930s.)
Chinese believe in the "cycle" of life and death as expounded by buddhism. "Peng Dehuai Anti-Party Clique", Ming Dynasty's Hai Rui, & Cultural Revolution could be said to have the apparent cause and effect. Hei Yannan's Ten Year Turmoils (Xingchen Publishing House, HK, 1988 edition, ISBN 9620406540) began the coverage of the cultural revolution with "Chapter One: Starting From 'Historical Tragic Drama' [Ming Dynasty Official Hai Rui's Losing His Job]". During Mt Lushan Meeting of July 2-Aug 16 1959, Peng Dehuai was classified as reactionary for opposing Mao Tse-tung's Great Leap Forward which would lead to starvation death of minimum 40 million peasants in the ensuing 3 years. In 1961, a historical drama, "Hai Rui's Dismissal" was taken as a play for sympathizing with deposed Peng Dehuai. In 1965, Mao Tse-tung authorized his cronies in initiating an attack at the drama, unofficially starting the cultural revolution that would sweep through the communist apparatus of Peking city as well as the politburo that, in Mao's eyes, had been usurped by political enemy Liu Shaoqi etc.
Historical Context Of Mao-Liu Relationship
In the section on CCP terrors, I had covered "Mao Tse-tung & Liu Shaoqi Initial Cooperation". Gao Hua pointed out that Mao Tse-tung gradually exercised control over CCP in addition to his re-acquisition of control over the Red Army since the 1935 Zunyi Meeting held during the Long March. Moscow returnee Zhang Wentian, who was encouraged by Mao in the struggles against Bo-gu [Qin Bangxian] and Li-de [Otto Braun] during the Long March, replaced Bo-gu as CCP's secretary general on Feb 5th 1935. Mao Tse-tung, Zhang Wentian and Wang Jiaxiang formed the so-called Three Person Team (i.e., troika), with actual military power resting in the hands of Mao Tse-tung. Zhou Enlai became very much subordinate to Mao Tse-tung since. Moscow returnees were only in charge of party propaganda, party affairs and regional affairs. In contrast, Red Army generals began to enter CCP politburo. Thereafter, after arriving in Shenxi Prov, Mao Tse-tung began to resent Zhang Wentian's posture as a 'theoretist'. After defeating Bo-gu and Kai-feng (blasted as doctrinairist & factionalist), Mao Tse-tung defeated Zhang Guotao by dispatching Red Army Fourth Front Army to the mouth of Ma Family Cavalry.
In 1937, Mao Tse-tung allied with Liu Shaoqi in challenging Zhang Wentian. On Feb 20th & March 4th 1937, twice, Liu Shaoqi wrote letters to Zhang Wentian, criticising ten year long "leftist" mistakes committed by CCP & Comintern, blasted CCP's leftist antagonism to his activities on the job of CCP Northern Bureau representative, and hinting the necessity of CCP leadership (i.e., Zhang Wentian) in reflecting on the responsibility. During the May 17-26th Meeting On "CCP Tasks In KMT-Controlled Areas", Liu Shaoqi argued fervently against Zhang Wentian by repeating what he wrote in earlier letters. Liu Shaoqi claimed that CCP losses in KMT-Controlled areas were 100% due to the "leftist putschism" and "closed-door-ism" mistakes, while Zhang Wentian, Bo-gu, Kai-feng and Chen Geng accused Liu Shaoqi of sharing Trotsky & Chen Duxiu's "revocationism". Ke Qingshi cursed Liu Shaoqi as an "old rightist". On June 6th, Zhang Wentian tried to desalinate Mao Tse-tung's remarks by stating that past CCP mistakes were more a strategic mistake than a mistake in political guideline/trend. Zhang Wentian further blasted Liu Shaoqi on the matter of citing 'big hats' such as "leftist putschism", "venturism" and "closed-door-ism" and rebutted Liu Shaoqi's "legality-ism" in launching CCP movements inside of KMT-controlled areas. On June 9th & 10th, Liu Shaoqi backed down from previous stance and made self-criticisms. This would become the prelude to the Purge of Trotskyists of 1937-1941.
In late Oct of 1937, Wang Ming & Kang Sheng returned to Dihua (Urumqi) of New Dominion Prov from Moscow, and thereafter entered Yan'an. On Dec 25th 1937, Wang Ming, in KMT-controlled Wuhan, issued a proclamation representing Stalin's line of thought, i.e., "CCP Proclamation As To Current Affairs", and proposed "five united" approaches to resisting Japanese under the KMT leadership. Wang Ming returned to Yan'an for Feb 27-March 1 1938 meeting and proposed "seven united" approaches in cooperation with KMT. Mao Tse-tung, privately calling Wang Ming a "rightist surrenderist", advised against Wang Ming's return to Wuhan. However, majority CCP politburo members did not object to Wang Ming's trip to Wuhan where CCP Yangtze Bureau had become a de facto CCP ruling apparatus.
To counter Wang Ming, Mao Tse-tung recalled Liu Shaoqi to Yan'an in mid-March, and on March 24th, Liu Shaoqi was retained in Yan'an per politburo resolution. Meanwhile, Mao Tse-tung dispatched Ren Bishi to Moscow for winning over Comintern. After two months of work by Ren Bishi in Moscow, on June 11th, Cominter affirmed CCP's policies, and on July 6th, Pravda published an article with portraits of Mao Tse-tung and Zhu De. In Moscow, Ren Bishi replaced Wang Jiaxiang as CCP rep, while Georgi Dimitrov asked Wang Jiaxiang relay a message to CCP that Wang Ming et al should unite around Mao Tse-tung, a message that purportedly restored Mao Tse-tung's control over CCP.
Liu Shaoqi Contributions To CCP
Liu Shaoqi Deviations From Mao Tse-tung
Peng Dehuai, Hai Rui, & Cultural Revolution
In early 1959, "People's Daily" and New China News Agency reported that in Zhuangxian County of Hunan Province some commune harvested 35000 kilograms of rice per acre, while some commune in Guangxi Province reached 65000 kilograms per acre. One communist official, ex-general Peng Dehuai, was the only one who stood out against Mao, hence lost his job and was classified as a "counter-reactionary". Lushan Meeting of July 2-Aug 16 1959 declared the 'Peng Dehuai Anti-Party Clique' for opposing Mao Tse-tung's Great Leap Forward which led to starvation death of minimum 40 million peasants in the ensuing 3 years. After 1959's Lushan Meeting, Mao went on the Anti-Rightist Trend to rout another 3,800,000 people. In 1961, a historical drama, "Hai Rui's Dismissal", was taken as a play for sympathizing with deposed Peng Dehuai. In 1965, Mao Tse-tung authorized his cronies in initiating an attack at the drama, unofficially starting the cultural revolution that would sweep through the communist apparatus of Peking city as well as the politburo that, in Mao's eyes, had been usurped by political enemy Liu Shaoqi et al.
Hei Yannan, in Ten Year Turmoil, pointed out that it was Mao Tse-tung himself who had instructed in April 1959 that people should learn from the unwavering and defiant loyalty of Ming Dynasty's official Hai Rui in daring to contradict and admonish Ming Emperor Jiajing [reign AD 1522-1566]. People's Daily promptly contacted Wu Han, CCP's deputy mayor for Peking as well as a historian on Ming Dynasty, for a propaganda war on the subject of Hai Rui. Two top opera actors, Zhou Xinfang and Ma Lianliang, pressed on Wu Han in writing up a historical drama on basis of Hai Rui. Cai Xitao, a friend of Wu Han, suggested the title of "Hai Rui's Dismissal" for the drama in late 1960. Hei Yannan stated that in 1961, Jiang Qing, i.e., Mao Tse-tung's unofficial wife, first raised her questions about the political nature of the drama to Mao Tse-tung. By 1964, Kang Sheng, i.e., Mao Tse-tung's Beria, suggested to Mao Tse-tung that "Hai Rui's Dismissal" could be a plot to use drama for expressing sympathy with Peng Dehuai by citation of Mao Tse-tung's talk during CCP 10th Plenary of 8th Session that some "people invented a way of using novels against the party". After that, Jiang Qing contacted Ke Qingshi, i.e., 1st secretary of CCP committee of Shanghai as well as a historical feud of Liu Shaoqi, for some hatchet men including Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan. Eight months later, on Nov 10th 1965, Yao Wenyuan published "New Commentary On Historical Drama - Hui Rui's Dismissal" on "Wen Hui Bao" newspaper in Shanghai.
Peking, however, refused to carry this article.
Ye Qun's Virginity & Lin Biao's Revenge
On Feb 22nd 1950, Xie Hegeng & Wang Ying married with a license from NY.
June 1952: McCarthy Act
9/27/54 xie arrested
10/4/54 wang ying arrested
nov 22 54 kicked to sf
late dec back to china
mar 57 declined jiang qing's invitation
may-july 57: anti-rightists
xie rightist for zhongnanhai park proposal
li kenong visited wang ying, zhou enlai/dong biwu called xie back to beijing from manchuria
dec 1960 - wang ying
invited to xiangshan hotel by zhou
5,6,7, 1966 CR
july 1 1967 taken to prison by red guards
march 1974 died in prison
75 xie released
79 rightist cap gone
Peng Dehuai, Luo Ruiqing, Lu Dingyi & Yang Shangkun
Mao Tse-tung's "My Big Character Poster" [Aug 5th 1966]
Comment by Ah Xiang
TO BE CONTINUED !
Ding Shu is an expert on China's Bloody 50 Year History. The following Ding Shu article in Chinese summarizes the death tolls during the Cultural Revolution. The kind of horror that occurred during the Cultural Revolution might be forgotten by those people who endured it.
Owning the time constraints, this webmaster had not been able to continue writing on the "modern Chinese history" for about ten years. To give visitors to this page some information about the cultural revolution, this webmaster transcribed some key points of the article by Ding Shu.
Million Death During the Cultural Revolution
On June 10th, 1966, Mao told Ho Chi-ming that the proletarian revolution might lead to the downfall of hundreds, thousands people in academic, educational, arts, colleges, middle schools and primary schools.
The editorial of People's Daily on June 1st, 1966, marked the start of the cultural revolution.
Zhou Enlai stated that the movement was targeting not communist cadreds, but the authoritarian faction that had taken the capitalist path, landlords, wealthy peasants, rightists and bougeoisie academic authorities.
Home ransacking originally started in Peking, with 114,000 households impacted. Then the rampage spread across China. In Chuansha County of Shanghai, about 7800 households were ransacked, for example. Altogether , 10 million households were ransacked nationwide.
This website expresses the personal opinions of the author. In addition to author's comments, extensive citations and quotes of ancient Chinese classics (available at http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3) were presented via transcribing and paraphrasing Classical Chinese language into the English language. Whenever possible, links and URLs are provided to give credit and reference to ideas borrowed elsewhere. This website may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, with or without prior written permission, on the pre-condition that acknowledgment or reciprocal link is expressively provided. All rights reserved.
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