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Chiang Kai-shek's Money Trail
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of the Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the communist fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate the American wartime reporters. (More, refer to the Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and The American Involvement in China: the Soviet Operation Snow, the IPR Conspiracy, the Dixie Mission, the Stilwell Incident, the OSS Scheme, the Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
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Land Enclosure Movement

Some mathematics for you:
In today's China, ordinary Chinese could make no more than US$2-US$10 per day. One of my aunts, whose land was "enclosed" by the government around 2000, had been receiving for years a mere subsidy of RMB 300 [US$40] per month. Before the enclosure, she could net no more than the subsidized income after paying for the costs of seeds, fertilizer and taxes. Another aunt is now receiving about RMB 30 [US$4] per month in the form of a non-governmentally-sanctioned retirement benefits for peasants of her county. In the cities and towns, innumerable workers had been forced to retire at age 40-55 in exchange for a nominal severance pay and a monthly subsidy of around RMB400 [$50]. (For China's ECON101, refer to Yang Fan's article on bubbles.) In contrast, a bank employee in Yangtze area might receive a subsidy of RMB300,000 [US$40k] for purchasing a property; and a high school teacher may receive an annual bonus of RMB9000 [US$1100] in year 2004. To yield the bureacratic position to some younger people of connections, a small patato official from a county-level taxation department, at age 55, could get a one-time severance payout of RMB500,000 [US$61,500] as well as a monthly subsidy of RMB3000 [US$400], i.e., a prevalent mode of collective & collusive 'communizing' and carving-up of state-owned assets and revenue streams. The city-dwellers of Shanghai could easily reap a profit of RMB200,000 [US$10k-30k] in a matter of 1-2 years from the real estate market that soundly beats even Tokyo, HK or New York. E.g., the cousin of my grandfather, who was allocated 50 square meters living quarter on 2nd floor of a detached house in the old French Concesson territory, now boasts a real estate value of 1 million RMB [i.e., US$115,000]. And, behind the drive of real estate price in Shenzhen & Zhuhai [i.e., special economic zones] were certainly hotbeds of second-wife villages and flourishing meat-swap market that had provided at one time 300 prostitutes for a Japanese tour delegation, tens of thousands of young women for HK truck drivers, and innumerable others for the "wealthy, powerful and distinguished" Chinese men.
Live Video of Chinese Police Fighting Innocent Chinese Peasants for Land Enclosure !!!

Similar to Industrial Revolution in England (1760-1850), agricultural land had been allocated for various kinds of economic zones at county-level, city-level, provincial-level and state-level. Chinese peasants had been losing their land to increasingly serious enclosures designed to deprive the peasants of their fields at non-market rate in the name of urbanization and industrialization. In the cities, citizens and residents of old city and town districts were frequently forced to relocate so as to vacate the land for building commercial buildings like skyscrapers, so-called 'noble' district for single-family residencies, high-rise luxury condominiums and shopping centers. More, per Zheng Yi, communist China had built over 30 wild animal parks nationwide by means of wanton enclosure, not to mention golfland springing up all over the country. (The following article on 'Land Enclosure Movement' had exposed the ugly aspects of the so-called economic reforms going on in today's China.)
The fascist Chinese communist regime had created a monstrous "satiable" society by rewarding the few at the expense of the majority !!! There are credible sources to prove that bank managers in China collude with bank employees in embezzling funds or steering away funds to overseas accounts like HK, Switzerland, Japan, Australia and America. HK, by the way, is the paradise for "washing money". The corruption and crime going on in China, not merely restricted to the banks, is fundamentally rooted in the crony personnel system in which parasites and thugs of each level high or low get interwined with each other. In the name of "globalization", communist regime had begun the process of liquidating the rotten and corrupt bank system by allowing Bank of America to invest $3B for 9 percent stake in China's state-owned Construction Bank. The United States government [State Department] and the Senators, who had actively pursued the cross-border fund transfers by Chiang Kai-shek cronies in the 1950s-60s and often tipped Chiang Kai-shek personally, are apparently turning a blind eye to the transnational financial crimes committed by the Chinese communists who are pre-occupied with "pleasure-seeking and literature-decoration" like Manchu rulers.
Fundamentally speaking, communist regime had adopted the same "block up" approaches economically and politically as Gun the father of pre-Xia dynasty founder Yu had undertaken as to the flood control. At stake is not a matter of the IQ or intelligence of the Chinese communist rulers and their "Harvard-educated" or "Stanford-educated" ministers and councillors but the stubborn and selfish greed for money, power, women and pleasure: There is no merit in Caoan Jushi's suggestion of some hideous agenda by some "disguised" ruling elites in deliberately corrupting China and the Chinese people to a final demise.
Agri-Industrial Scissor Differential
While US and Europe continue to subsidize their machine-operation farming industry, Communist China had lessened money input into the countryside from 1990 onward, and by 1994, dramatically cut the funds flow into the countryside, with the time period of 1994-1996 being negative growth. This is on top of the early rip-off, from 1952 to 1978, of an 'Agri-industrial scissor differential' of 632 billion RMB from peasants in addition to a collection of 726.4 billion agriculture tax, whereas its funds input into the countryside was merely 173 billion for the same time period.
In the section on caste, we discussed how Chinese communists distributed the lands to 0.3 billion peasants by August 1952 during the land reform after killing landlords and confiscating lands, and then re-seized the lands from the peasants to form the so-called "agricultural cooperatives" (i.e., precursor to the "People's Communes" of the 1958-1960 Great Leap Forward). In late 1952, peasants were forced into 8 million 'mutual-aid labor groups' and 4 thousand 'agricultural cooperatives' through collectivization. So to say that Chinese peasants had already lost their ownership of the land, and land became the property of the party-state. What the peasants possessed would be the right to cultivate the land.
In 1953, Communist China, before enacting "household registration system" of 1957, had adopted a so-called agri-industrial scissor differential that discriminated against peasant entity [non-privileged class] versus city dweller entity [privileged class]. On April 17th, 1953, the State Council issued a decree called "Instructions As To Persuading and Desisting Peasants From Chaotic Relocation Into Cities". Peasants were to become lowest caste of citizens in Chinese society with the deprivation of the right to migration or relocation.
"Industrial-Agricultural Scissor Differential" was widened in Oct 1953 when CCP adopted a policy of "planned purchase by the State and planned distribution by the State", namely, CCP exercising absolute control over the harvest and resale of grains, vegetable oil and cotton etc. This was supposedly for meeting the new challenge of 17,000,000 new township population. CCP determined that the State would need to "purchase" 70.9 billion "jin" of rice for the period of July 1st 1953 to June 30th 1954. (Here, 2 "jin" is equivalent to 1 kilogram [kg].) The actual "purchase" figure was 78.45 billion "jin" of rice and wheat, an increase of 29.3% over prior year, at the expense of peasants' living standards. 78.45 billion "jin" of rice and wheat was equivalent to one month grains supply for 0.5 billion Chinese peasants in 1954 per Hua Min (whose "China Great Reversal" [Mirror Books, Flushing, New York, Dec 1996 edition, ISBN 1-896745-19-9] was a book analysing China's society in 1956, and before and after 1956). Hua Min pointed out that Chinese peasants, who surrendered 67 billion "jin" of rice and wheat in 1952, would be required to surrender 90 billion "jin" by June 1956, with an increase of 35%, whereas production had merely increased by 12% and agri-population had increased by 2%. Peasants, both poverty-stricken due to grain surrender and lacking motivation due to collectivization, certainly complained about communist regime, with the result of about 100,000 peasants and agriculture cadres sentenced into "reactionaries". (In whole year of 1954, 330,000 reactionaries and criminals were arrested nationwide, among whom 111,000 were classified as "reactionaries" and 10,000 around were executed.)
Modern Coolies & Immiserization Growth
Early Crackdowns and Land-Reform Joke On Peasants
Household Registration System
Peasants Starvation & The Great Leap Forward
Phenomenon Of Subdivided Houses
Chinese City-Dwellers & The Pyramid Scheme
Town & Country Administration Layout, & Civilian-Army Equivalence
"CowSheds", May 7th Cadre School & 'Educated Youth' Generation
Social Ladder For Peasants - Joining PLA
The Chinese Peasants' Blood Selling Saga & AIDS Epidemic
Peasant Women Suicide Rate In China
China's Migrant Workers - Modern Coolies , Three Agri Issues

Evil "Two Track Price System"
http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/4/5/29/65847.html carried an article in regards to the nature of "guan [officials] dao [purchasing]", stating that it was CCP Central's evil "two track system" that led to "guan dao", not princeling party. CCP Central, at the time of economic reform in mid-1980s, distributed "production & consumption materials" to "state enterprises" at planned-economy price and to "non state enterprises" at market-determined price. The category of "non state enterprises" would include mostly sub-regional factories or working units, like shire-township enterprises [i.e., "xiang-zhen"]. (In section on 'All-People Registers' vs 'Collective Registers', we used Ma Hong's Economic Annals to define the "inferior" Collective Register Enterpises as those that did not enjoy government subsidy.)
Similar to the agri-industrial scissor differential that discriminated against peasant entity [non-privileged class] versus city dweller entity [privileged class], CCP Central's "two track system" served the only purpose of differentiating further between privileged class and lesser-privileged class. Princeling party or "prince and princess gang", with firm grip of the Nation's "production & consumption materials", could easily make a living by signing "referral letters" or selling "surplus materials" for a market gain.
Communist China, at the timeframe of 1988-1989, was afloat with the jargon of "10 Year Reform". During this timeframe of two years, political liberalization enhanced economic corruption among the "prince and princess gang", with Zhao Dajun [i.e., Zhao Ziyang's son] and Deng Pufang [Deng Xiaoping's son] becoming the prime targets of the students. Hu's death in 1989 would trigger the Second Students' Movement which ended in the June 4th Massacre of 1989. During the Second Students' Movement, students mounted attacks at the phenomenon of "guan dao" [i.e., commodity resale by governmentally sponsored organizations] and blamed it on the princeling party. Complicating the corruption issue would be price hike of major consumer products around the turn of the year. Yuan Mu, i.e., some speaker of CCP Central, would become the most hated communist cadre for his TV-broadcasted message of "price adjustment".
Land Enclosure
After the 1989 Tian'an'men Square Massacre, communists found another game, i.e., the land enclosure movement that would see the peasants deprived of their fields at non-market rate in the name of urbanization and industrialization as well as the city dwellers forced to relocate on the pretext of "remodeling on the dilapidated houses". Communist leadership, in collaboration with capitalists, had been making windfall profits in selling land development permits or sub-contracting construction projects like skyscrapers, so-called 'noble' district for single-family residencies, high-rise luxury condominiums and shopping centers. For a real-time example of enclosure going on in China, refer to http://www.peacehall.com/news/gb/china/2005/07/200507080045.shtml for the bloody confrontations between villagers of Shengyoucun and the rascals from Dingzhou city government of Hebei Province. (Note that international exposure of the regime's rascal behavior had led to communist's pushing out some small potato officials for punishment: A local Chinese Party official and 26 other people have gone on trial for their role in a bloody riot over land rights in northern China. He Feng and the others were charged with causing "intentional injuries" during a clash with protesters in Shengyou village, Hebei, in June.)
Land, a resource owned by the State [i.e., CCP], was always a taboo topic prior to Deng Xiaoping's post-massacre "relaunching economic reform with a southern tour of SEZs [special economic zones]". Having brought to US the newspaper clips from "World Economic Journal" spanning multiple years, I finally threw them away. Nobody had really been able to predict the massive "land enclosure movement" that occurred in China after 1989 massacre. Neither did Wang Juntao's "Economics Weekly" make a good forecast on the subject. Heralding "economic positivism" since 1987, Chen Ziming, Wang Juntao and their "Social, Economical & Scientific Research Institute of Peking" played two constructive roles, i) calling attention to social, economic & political crises, and ii) transplanting Western economic theories and concepts, including stagflation, development economics, corporations as legal entity [i.e., "economic person"], existence of economic cycle in socialist economies, welfare system, and income distribution government subsidy to city-dwellers.
Wang Juntao, in 1988-1989, was wrongly pointing to "economic interests" as the barrier to internal reform by communists, not "political conservativism". 15 years later, Wu Renhua, at a forum (http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/4/6/4/n558888.htm) with Wang Juntao & Wang Dan, would have to agree on the fact that China's path to democracy and freedom could be even more tenuous due to a mutatant communist party built on top of "economic interests" rather than of "ideological perseverance". 15 years after the massacre, against the context of world-wide rising price in copper, scrap metals, oil and cement [pulled by strong demand from China] would be the following scenes: state-owned enterprises had been dissipating into the hands of a handful; young or middle-aged workers were terminated employment in exchange for one-time payout; peasant migrant workers succeeded the most hazardous jobs in mines and factories; and hundreds of thousands of peasant children swamped to coastal economic zones as slave labor or child labor. In the background would be barren and fertilized land, deserted farming fields, dry riverbeds, 'brown clouds' skies, pollutated rivers and lakes, and deforested hills, broken families, predatory and selfish human character, and morally degenerate society.
The recent land enclosure would see peasants' land deprived at a compensation rate of about 3-5 years worthy of crop products that could typically grow on the patch of land enclosed. The author of the attached article stated that from year 1979 to year 1997, altogether 0.27 billion Chinese acres of land had been converted to non-agricultural projects, like urban expansion, factories and enterprises, and development zones. The government and various land management organizations / commercial units had profiteered 6,000 to 10,000 billion Chinese dollars by taking advantage of a brand new kind of 'Scissor Differential', i.e., buying lands at the non-market rate of 3-5 years worthy of crop products and selling the land to commercial companies at world-market comparable rates. This vicious business practice had produced a phenomenon of artificial prosperity in China's land and real estate markets as well as supported strata of parasite kindred thugs at various levels of the government apparatus and their related or attached commercial or enterprise units.

China's official account stated that 2,300,000 acres of land were converted to non-farming usage since 1990, and as many as 20 million peasants could have been impacted by the loss of land. Also note that the Chinese communists had fabricated another clause for justifying the land development, i.e., the right to utilization versus the right to ownership: What the Chinese populace had acquired in the course of property purchase, would be the so-called right to utlization for a duration of 70 years. http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/5/4/10/91802.html carried a warning from Cao'an Jushi, stating that the next step for the communist government would be to expand its fiscal coffer by levying a 'property tax' on the real estate, which would not be justified in Cao'an Jushi's opinion since Chinese property-owners do not have claim to the land: In United States, property tax does levy against both the land [which does not apply to Chinese case] and the improvements, about 1.2% in case of California.
"Land Enclosure Movement" was not restricted to the countryside. In the cities, citizens and residents of old city and town districts were frequently forced to relocate so as to vacate the land for building commercial buildings like skyscrapers, so-called 'noble' district for single-family residencies, high-rise luxury condominiums and shopping centers. This kind of operation is usually under the blanket termed 'wei fang gai zao', i.e., "remodeling on the dilapidated houses". Very often, the government subsidiaries in charge of commercial development would hire thugs to harass and kick out the residents should those citizens and residents of old city and town districts refuse to move. As a compensation for the lost homes and residencies, citizens and residents of old city and town districts would usually be allocated some apartment-like flats in remote areas like the outskirts of their cities. Note that Chinese government decrees that apartment-like flats should not install elevators till the storey reaches something like 8th storey building. Often, the affected residents resorted to protests and could somehow be heard due to their non-political nature.
Having pointed out that Communist China clandestinely revised its "Constitution" in 1982 (on basis of editions from 1954, 1975 & 1978) by adding two clauses to the effect that "all land in cities belong to the State" and "all land in the countryside belong to the 'Collective'", the author further stated that ordinary Chinese, whose right to their dwelling place had been deprived overnight, would often face rascal police and proxy henchmen during the process of being forced into a relocation; find no representation in China's corrupt and colluding judicial system; and have to resort to frequent open conflicts with the authorities for safeguarding their rights.

Comment by Ah Xiang

ANTI-RIGHTISTS MOVEMENT -- Political, Social, Cultural, Historical Analysis Of China







由中国共产党一手操纵所制定的宪法、民法通则、土地管理法和农业法都有关于农村集体土地所有权的规定。土地财产权被虚拟地划分给 “农民集体”。而 “农民集体”只是一个抽象的、没有法律人格意义的集合群体,并不是法律关系的主体,不能具体行使对土地有效监督和管理,从此造成农村集体土地所有权虚置。 





由于建设和土地开发,原住民不得不被迫搬迁,彻底打乱了他们平静、和谐的生活,并且面临着巨大的经济损失和很多生活难题。因此,对所有被拆迁的居民进行补偿是理所当然的。对被拆迁居民所拥有的房屋、土地进行财产补偿更是天经地义、不容置疑的。依照国际惯例,对搬迁居民不仅要提供住房,还必须安排好他们的工作与生活;对搬迁移民的安置补偿不仅要给足额的现金,还必须坚持“以土地补偿土地”的基本原则,所有工作必须做到“充分、及时、有效”,使移民的生活问题得到比较圆满地解决,并为他们长期的生存和发展提供必要的外部条件。这种作法充分体现了“以人为本”的基本原则。然而,在中国大陆,几十年来,特别是近十几年来,在中国共产党及其政府支持、纵容下,贪官污吏、不法奸商、黑恶势力明目张胆地以“土地是国家的”,“国家要对土地重新安排”为由,打出各种旗号“国家建设”、“规划要求”、“危房改造”、“城镇建设”、“申办奥运”…, 或者不给钱,或者以普通人难以想象的低价,通过拆迁掠夺老百姓的土地! 








现在共产党及其政府控制着全国绝大部份资源、掌握着不受监督的绝对权力,营造了一个党大于法、权大于法的社会,随心所欲地胡作非为。共产党及其政府对于弱势群体无理汲取,强迫他们承担着党政的统治成本和现代化构图的实验成本,打出“摸着石头过河”、“让一部分人先富起来”的口号,以不合法、不正当、不公平的手段掠取国家、集体和公民的财产,让一批贪官污吏、不法之徒大发不义之财;以 "改革开放过程中出现的新问题"、"改革需要一部分人付出代价"为说词进行欺骗;以"坚持正确舆论导向"为口实进行新闻封锁;打出"稳定压倒一切"的大旗进行包庇。共产党权贵们将权力与资本相结合,使中国走上了畸形的经济发展之路,却自欺欺人地宣称是中国特色的社会主义,自诩代表人民利益。江泽民大言不惭地声称他们代表着最大多数人民的根本利益。然而,当几亿公民的切身利益、合法权益遭受百分之百的侵害的时候,当这种侵害延续时间长达几十年、受害群众怨声载道的时候,他们却依然充耳不闻、视而不见,这样的"领导"还能代表人民吗?事实上,他们就是实施恶法的罪魁祸首!共产党宣布自己的职责是代表先进生产力,实质上是置弱势群体于不顾,以"代表先进生产力的发展要求"为名,实行官场支配市场的官商一体的专制制度。 



在现代法治社会里,公民的财产权被视为人权实现的基础,具有神圣不可侵犯的地位。因为财产权既是个人谋生以及改善生存条件的手段,也是他免于被压迫、被奴役的基本保障。财产权是生命权的延续,是公民的自由与尊严的保证。财产权和生命权、自由权一道构成了基本人权。而财产权则是人权的核心。公民只有拥有了财产权,才可以过上有尊严的、体面的生活。公民财产神圣不可侵犯的原则构成了现代民主政治最牢固的道德基础。 共产党及其政府剥夺公民的财产实际上就是剥夺公民的生命权和自由权,这是对人权的粗暴践踏!人权是人与生俱来的基本权利,对一部分人的人权侵害就是对所有人的人权侵害。 





万众一心 (北京)
年3月1日写, 3月10日改 



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This website expresses the personal opinions of the author. In addition to author's comments, extensive citations and quotes of ancient Chinese classics (available at http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3) were presented via transcribing and paraphrasing Classical Chinese language into the English language. Whenever possible, links and URLs are provided to give credit and reference to ideas borrowed elsewhere. This website may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, with or without prior written permission, on the pre-condition that acknowledgment or reciprocal link is expressively provided. All rights reserved.
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This is an internet version of this webmaster's writings on "Imperial China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of this webmaster's writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Imperial China", which was originally planned for after "Republican China", is now being pulled forward, with continuous updates posted to Pre-History, Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties, offering the readers a tour of ancient China transcending space and time. A comprehensive version covering the 3000 years of ancient Chinese history, from 3000 B.C. down, with 3-5 times more materials than shown on this website and including 95% of the records in the spring & autumn annals ZUO ZHUAN, is expected to be made available on the Amazon website soon. The unforgotten emphasis on "Republican China", which was being re-outlined to be inclusive of the years of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955, will continue. This webmaster plans to make part of the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into publication soon. The original plan for completion was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of the years of 1911-1955. Due to constraints, only the most important time periods would be reorganized into some kind of publishable format, such as the 1939-1940, 1944-1945, and 1945-1950 Chinese civil wars, with special highlight on Km Il-sun's supplying 250,000 North Korean mercenaries to fighting the Chinese civil war, with about 60,000-70,000 survivors repatriated to North Korea for the 1950 Korea War, for example --something to remind the readers how North Korea developed to threaten the world with a nuclear winter today. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of this webmaster's writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of the ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese tradition, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of the Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "The Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang's Family"]. This webmaster intends to make the contents of this website into the Prometheus fire, lightening up the fuzzy part of China's history. It is this webmaster's hope that some future generation of the Chinese patriots, including the to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thief Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the good of the country. This webmaster's question for the sons of China: Are you to wear the communist pigtails for 267 years?

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Republican China in Blog Format
Republican China in Blog Format
Li Hongzhang's poem after signing the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki:
In Commemoration of China's Fall under the Alien Conquests in A.D. 1279, A.D. 1644 & A.D. 1949
At the time [when China fell under the alien rule],