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The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. 
It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by 
i) the imperialists (i.e., the British colonialists whom Roosevelt always suspected to have hijacked the U.S. State Department)  
and ii) the communists.  At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel 
that was delicately knit by the sophisticated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and "Old China Hands" of 1920s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of 1940s.
Wang Bingnan's German wife, Anneliese Martens, physically won over the hearts of  Americans by providing the wartime 'bachelors' with special one-on-one service per Zeng Xubai's writings.  Though, Anna Wang [Anneliese Martens], in her memoirs, expressed jealousy over Gong Peng by stating that the Anglo-American reporters had flattered the Chinese communists and the communist movement as a result of being entranced with the goldfish-eye'ed personal assistant of Zhou Enlai
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the Asian fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate American wartime reporters. (More, refer to Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and American Involvement in China: Soviet Operation Snow, IPR Conspiracy, Dixie Mission, Stilwell Incident, OSS Scheme, Coalition Government Crap, the Amerasia Case, & the China White Paper.)
 
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Land Enclosure Movement


 
Some mathematics for you:
 
In today's China, ordinary Chinese could make no more than US$2-US$10 per day. One of my aunts, whose land was "enclosed" by the government around 2000, had been receiving for years a mere subsidy of RMB 300 [US$40] per month. Before the enclosure, she could net no more than the subsidized income after paying for the costs of seeds, fertilizer and taxes. Another aunt is now receiving about RMB 30 [US$4] per month in the form of a non-governmentally-sanctioned retirement benefits for peasants of her county. In the cities and towns, innumerable workers had been forced to retire at age 40-55 in exchange for a nominal severance pay and a monthly subsidy of around RMB400 [$50]. (For China's ECON101, refer to Yang Fan's article on bubbles.) In contrast, a bank employee in Yangtze area might receive a subsidy of RMB300,000 [US$40k] for purchasing a property; and a high school teacher may receive an annual bonus of RMB9000 [US$1100] in year 2004. To yield the bureacratic position to some younger people of connections, a small patato official from a county-level taxation department, at age 55, could get a one-time severance payout of RMB500,000 [US$61,500] as well as a monthly subsidy of RMB3000 [US$400], i.e., a prevalent mode of collective & collusive 'communizing' and carving-up of state-owned assets and revenue streams. The city-dwellers of Shanghai could easily reap a profit of RMB200,000 [US$10k-30k] in a matter of 1-2 years from the real estate market that soundly beats even Tokyo, HK or New York. E.g., the cousin of my grandfather, who was allocated 50 square meters living quarter on 2nd floor of a detached house in the old French Concesson territory, now boasts a real estate value of 1 million RMB [i.e., US$115,000]. And, behind the drive of real estate price in Shenzhen & Zhuhai [i.e., special economic zones] were certainly hotbeds of second-wife villages and flourishing meat-swap market that had provided at one time 300 prostitutes for a Japanese tour delegation, tens of thousands of young women for HK truck drivers, and innumerable others for the "wealthy, powerful and distinguished" Chinese men.
 
 
Live Video of Chinese Police Fighting Innocent Chinese Peasants for Land Enclosure !!!

 
Similar to Industrial Revolution in England (1760-1850), agricultural land had been allocated for various kinds of economic zones at county-level, city-level, provincial-level and state-level. Chinese peasants had been losing their land to increasingly serious enclosures designed to deprive the peasants of their fields at non-market rate in the name of urbanization and industrialization. In the cities, citizens and residents of old city and town districts were frequently forced to relocate so as to vacate the land for building commercial buildings like skyscrapers, so-called 'noble' district for single-family residencies, high-rise luxury condominiums and shopping centers. More, per Zheng Yi, communist China had built over 30 wild animal parks nationwide by means of wanton enclosure, not to mention golfland springing up all over the country. (The following article on 'Land Enclosure Movement' had exposed the ugly aspects of the so-called economic reforms going on in today's China.)
 
The fascist Chinese communist regime had created a monstrous "satiable" society by rewarding the few at the expense of the majority !!! There are credible sources to prove that bank managers in China collude with bank employees in embezzling funds or steering away funds to overseas accounts like HK, Switzerland, Japan, Australia and America. HK, by the way, is the paradise for "washing money". The corruption and crime going on in China, not merely restricted to the banks, is fundamentally rooted in the crony personnel system in which parasites and thugs of each level high or low get interwined with each other. In the name of "globalization", communist regime had begun the process of liquidating the rotten and corrupt bank system by allowing Bank of America to invest $3B for 9 percent stake in China's state-owned Construction Bank. The United States government [State Department] and the Senators, who had actively pursued the cross-border fund transfers by Chiang Kai-shek cronies in the 1950s-60s and often tipped Chiang Kai-shek personally, are apparently turning a blind eye to the transnational financial crimes committed by the Chinese communists who are pre-occupied with "pleasure-seeking and literature-decoration" like Manchu rulers.
 
Fundamentally speaking, communist regime had adopted the same "block up" approaches economically and politically as Gun the father of pre-Xia dynasty founder Yu had undertaken as to the flood control. At stake is not a matter of the IQ or intelligence of the Chinese communist rulers and their "Harvard-educated" or "Stanford-educated" ministers and councillors but the stubborn and selfish greed for money, power, women and pleasure: There is no merit in Caoan Jushi's suggestion of some hideous agenda by some "disguised" ruling elites in deliberately corrupting China and the Chinese people to a final demise.
 
 
Agri-Industrial Scissor Differential
 
While US and Europe continue to subsidize their machine-operation farming industry, Communist China had lessened money input into the countryside from 1990 onward, and by 1994, dramatically cut the funds flow into the countryside, with the time period of 1994-1996 being negative growth. This is on top of the early rip-off, from 1952 to 1978, of an 'Agri-industrial scissor differential' of 632 billion RMB from peasants in addition to a collection of 726.4 billion agriculture tax, whereas its funds input into the countryside was merely 173 billion for the same time period.
 
In the section on caste, we discussed how Chinese communists distributed the lands to 0.3 billion peasants by August 1952 during the land reform after killing landlords and confiscating lands, and then re-seized the lands from the peasants to form the so-called "agricultural cooperatives" (i.e., precursor to the "People's Communes" of the 1958-1960 Great Leap Forward). In late 1952, peasants were forced into 8 million 'mutual-aid labor groups' and 4 thousand 'agricultural cooperatives' through collectivization. So to say that Chinese peasants had already lost their ownership of the land, and land became the property of the party-state. What the peasants possessed would be the right to cultivate the land.
 
In 1953, Communist China, before enacting "household registration system" of 1957, had adopted a so-called agri-industrial scissor differential that discriminated against peasant entity [non-privileged class] versus city dweller entity [privileged class]. On April 17th, 1953, the State Council issued a decree called "Instructions As To Persuading and Desisting Peasants From Chaotic Relocation Into Cities". Peasants were to become lowest caste of citizens in Chinese society with the deprivation of the right to migration or relocation.
 
"Industrial-Agricultural Scissor Differential" was widened in Oct 1953 when CCP adopted a policy of "planned purchase by the State and planned distribution by the State", namely, CCP exercising absolute control over the harvest and resale of grains, vegetable oil and cotton etc. This was supposedly for meeting the new challenge of 17,000,000 new township population. CCP determined that the State would need to "purchase" 70.9 billion "jin" of rice for the period of July 1st 1953 to June 30th 1954. (Here, 2 "jin" is equivalent to 1 kilogram [kg].) The actual "purchase" figure was 78.45 billion "jin" of rice and wheat, an increase of 29.3% over prior year, at the expense of peasants' living standards. 78.45 billion "jin" of rice and wheat was equivalent to one month grains supply for 0.5 billion Chinese peasants in 1954 per Hua Min (whose "China Great Reversal" [Mirror Books, Flushing, New York, Dec 1996 edition, ISBN 1-896745-19-9] was a book analysing China's society in 1956, and before and after 1956). Hua Min pointed out that Chinese peasants, who surrendered 67 billion "jin" of rice and wheat in 1952, would be required to surrender 90 billion "jin" by June 1956, with an increase of 35%, whereas production had merely increased by 12% and agri-population had increased by 2%. Peasants, both poverty-stricken due to grain surrender and lacking motivation due to collectivization, certainly complained about communist regime, with the result of about 100,000 peasants and agriculture cadres sentenced into "reactionaries". (In whole year of 1954, 330,000 reactionaries and criminals were arrested nationwide, among whom 111,000 were classified as "reactionaries" and 10,000 around were executed.)
 
Modern Coolies & Immiserization Growth
Early Crackdowns and Land-Reform Joke On Peasants
Household Registration System
Peasants Starvation & The Great Leap Forward
Phenomenon Of Subdivided Houses
Chinese City-Dwellers & The Pyramid Scheme
Town & Country Administration Layout, & Civilian-Army Equivalence
"CowSheds", May 7th Cadre School & 'Educated Youth' Generation
Social Ladder For Peasants - Joining PLA
The Chinese Peasants' Blood Selling Saga & AIDS Epidemic
Peasant Women Suicide Rate In China
China's Migrant Workers - Modern Coolies , Three Agri Issues

 
 
Evil "Two Track Price System"
 
http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/4/5/29/65847.html carried an article in regards to the nature of "guan [officials] dao [purchasing]", stating that it was CCP Central's evil "two track system" that led to "guan dao", not princeling party. CCP Central, at the time of economic reform in mid-1980s, distributed "production & consumption materials" to "state enterprises" at planned-economy price and to "non state enterprises" at market-determined price. The category of "non state enterprises" would include mostly sub-regional factories or working units, like shire-township enterprises [i.e., "xiang-zhen"]. (In section on 'All-People Registers' vs 'Collective Registers', we used Ma Hong's Economic Annals to define the "inferior" Collective Register Enterpises as those that did not enjoy government subsidy.)
 
Similar to the agri-industrial scissor differential that discriminated against peasant entity [non-privileged class] versus city dweller entity [privileged class], CCP Central's "two track system" served the only purpose of differentiating further between privileged class and lesser-privileged class. Princeling party or "prince and princess gang", with firm grip of the Nation's "production & consumption materials", could easily make a living by signing "referral letters" or selling "surplus materials" for a market gain.
 
Communist China, at the timeframe of 1988-1989, was afloat with the jargon of "10 Year Reform". During this timeframe of two years, political liberalization enhanced economic corruption among the "prince and princess gang", with Zhao Dajun [i.e., Zhao Ziyang's son] and Deng Pufang [Deng Xiaoping's son] becoming the prime targets of the students. Hu's death in 1989 would trigger the Second Students' Movement which ended in the June 4th Massacre of 1989. During the Second Students' Movement, students mounted attacks at the phenomenon of "guan dao" [i.e., commodity resale by governmentally sponsored organizations] and blamed it on the princeling party. Complicating the corruption issue would be price hike of major consumer products around the turn of the year. Yuan Mu, i.e., some speaker of CCP Central, would become the most hated communist cadre for his TV-broadcasted message of "price adjustment".
 
 
Land Enclosure
 
After the 1989 Tian'an'men Square Massacre, communists found another game, i.e., the land enclosure movement that would see the peasants deprived of their fields at non-market rate in the name of urbanization and industrialization as well as the city dwellers forced to relocate on the pretext of "remodeling on the dilapidated houses". Communist leadership, in collaboration with capitalists, had been making windfall profits in selling land development permits or sub-contracting construction projects like skyscrapers, so-called 'noble' district for single-family residencies, high-rise luxury condominiums and shopping centers. For a real-time example of enclosure going on in China, refer to http://www.peacehall.com/news/gb/china/2005/07/200507080045.shtml for the bloody confrontations between villagers of Shengyoucun and the rascals from Dingzhou city government of Hebei Province. (Note that international exposure of the regime's rascal behavior had led to communist's pushing out some small potato officials for punishment: A local Chinese Party official and 26 other people have gone on trial for their role in a bloody riot over land rights in northern China. He Feng and the others were charged with causing "intentional injuries" during a clash with protesters in Shengyou village, Hebei, in June.)
 
Land, a resource owned by the State [i.e., CCP], was always a taboo topic prior to Deng Xiaoping's post-massacre "relaunching economic reform with a southern tour of SEZs [special economic zones]". Having brought to US the newspaper clips from "World Economic Journal" spanning multiple years, I finally threw them away. Nobody had really been able to predict the massive "land enclosure movement" that occurred in China after 1989 massacre. Neither did Wang Juntao's "Economics Weekly" make a good forecast on the subject. Heralding "economic positivism" since 1987, Chen Ziming, Wang Juntao and their "Social, Economical & Scientific Research Institute of Peking" played two constructive roles, i) calling attention to social, economic & political crises, and ii) transplanting Western economic theories and concepts, including stagflation, development economics, corporations as legal entity [i.e., "economic person"], existence of economic cycle in socialist economies, welfare system, and income distribution government subsidy to city-dwellers.
 
Wang Juntao, in 1988-1989, was wrongly pointing to "economic interests" as the barrier to internal reform by communists, not "political conservativism". 15 years later, Wu Renhua, at a forum (http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/4/6/4/n558888.htm) with Wang Juntao & Wang Dan, would have to agree on the fact that China's path to democracy and freedom could be even more tenuous due to a mutatant communist party built on top of "economic interests" rather than of "ideological perseverance". 15 years after the massacre, against the context of world-wide rising price in copper, scrap metals, oil and cement [pulled by strong demand from China] would be the following scenes: state-owned enterprises had been dissipating into the hands of a handful; young or middle-aged workers were terminated employment in exchange for one-time payout; peasant migrant workers succeeded the most hazardous jobs in mines and factories; and hundreds of thousands of peasant children swamped to coastal economic zones as slave labor or child labor. In the background would be barren and fertilized land, deserted farming fields, dry riverbeds, 'brown clouds' skies, pollutated rivers and lakes, and deforested hills, broken families, predatory and selfish human character, and morally degenerate society.
 
The recent land enclosure would see peasants' land deprived at a compensation rate of about 3-5 years worthy of crop products that could typically grow on the patch of land enclosed. The author of the attached article stated that from year 1979 to year 1997, altogether 0.27 billion Chinese acres of land had been converted to non-agricultural projects, like urban expansion, factories and enterprises, and development zones. The government and various land management organizations / commercial units had profiteered 6,000 to 10,000 billion Chinese dollars by taking advantage of a brand new kind of 'Scissor Differential', i.e., buying lands at the non-market rate of 3-5 years worthy of crop products and selling the land to commercial companies at world-market comparable rates. This vicious business practice had produced a phenomenon of artificial prosperity in China's land and real estate markets as well as supported strata of parasite kindred thugs at various levels of the government apparatus and their related or attached commercial or enterprise units.

 
China's official account stated that 2,300,000 acres of land were converted to non-farming usage since 1990, and as many as 20 million peasants could have been impacted by the loss of land. Also note that the Chinese communists had fabricated another clause for justifying the land development, i.e., the right to utilization versus the right to ownership: What the Chinese populace had acquired in the course of property purchase, would be the so-called right to utlization for a duration of 70 years. http://www.secretchina.com/news/articles/5/4/10/91802.html carried a warning from Cao'an Jushi, stating that the next step for the communist government would be to expand its fiscal coffer by levying a 'property tax' on the real estate, which would not be justified in Cao'an Jushi's opinion since Chinese property-owners do not have claim to the land: In United States, property tax does levy against both the land [which does not apply to Chinese case] and the improvements, about 1.2% in case of California.
 
"Land Enclosure Movement" was not restricted to the countryside. In the cities, citizens and residents of old city and town districts were frequently forced to relocate so as to vacate the land for building commercial buildings like skyscrapers, so-called 'noble' district for single-family residencies, high-rise luxury condominiums and shopping centers. This kind of operation is usually under the blanket termed 'wei fang gai zao', i.e., "remodeling on the dilapidated houses". Very often, the government subsidiaries in charge of commercial development would hire thugs to harass and kick out the residents should those citizens and residents of old city and town districts refuse to move. As a compensation for the lost homes and residencies, citizens and residents of old city and town districts would usually be allocated some apartment-like flats in remote areas like the outskirts of their cities. Note that Chinese government decrees that apartment-like flats should not install elevators till the storey reaches something like 8th storey building. Often, the affected residents resorted to protests and could somehow be heard due to their non-political nature.
 
Having pointed out that Communist China clandestinely revised its "Constitution" in 1982 (on basis of editions from 1954, 1975 & 1978) by adding two clauses to the effect that "all land in cities belong to the State" and "all land in the countryside belong to the 'Collective'", the author further stated that ordinary Chinese, whose right to their dwelling place had been deprived overnight, would often face rascal police and proxy henchmen during the process of being forced into a relocation; find no representation in China's corrupt and colluding judicial system; and have to resort to frequent open conflicts with the authorities for safeguarding their rights.
 

 
Comment by Ah Xiang
 

 
ANTI-RIGHTISTS MOVEMENT -- Political, Social, Cultural, Historical Analysis Of China
【看中国报道】土地问题 

人们常常把土地比喻为人类的母亲,因为“土地是各种物质福利之源。土地给我们一切日常用度,也给我们一切价值基础,无论那是食物、衣物、燃料、屋料、金属,还是宝石。我们生活在土地上,而且最后回到土地:当我们故去之后,身体或骨灰。”马克思曾引用英国古典经济学家威廉·佩地的一句名言“劳动是财富之父,土地是财富之母”用以说明土地对人类的极端重要性。在法治社会里,谁拥有了土地,谁就拥有了财富。然而,在中国大陆,公民合法的土地财产却成了共产党及其政府掠夺的对象。 

财富是人类社会进步和文明的标志。人类通过不断地创造财富推动了社会的进步和文明的提升。公民对其财产的合理追求是社会进步的一种现实动力,依法保护公民的财产权利,就是持久地、充分地保护这种社会进步动力,使公民对社会现实和未来充满信心。 

中国是一个历史悠久的农业大国,数千年来,农业在国民经济中始终占据着举足轻重的地位,农民占我国人口的大多数,土地的重要性尤其突出。人们除了追求人类生存所必需的房屋和土地之外,更把追求财富的目光集中在能够产生财富的农业用地之上。随着时间的推移,一部分人拥有了大量的土地,而多数人却只拥有较少的土地。在落后的政治制度下,社会公正无从体现,社会矛盾日益加剧。中国民主革命的先行者孙中山先生发出了“耕者有其田”的号召。 

中国共产党成立以后认识到农民问题、土地问题在中国社会变革中的重要地位。为了取得农民的支持和拥护,中国共产党以阶级斗争理论作为指导思想,打出了“反剥削、反压迫”的旗号,采用暴力手段开展土地革命。抗日战争胜利之后,中共发布土地法大纲,着手实施土地改革,把地主的土地分给缺地少地的农民,而地主、富农家庭则被“扫地出门”,他们只能分坏地、住破房,成了被专政的对象。分得了土地的农民积极参军参战,用鲜血和生命支持共产党取得了政权。中华人民共和国成立以后,贫下中农所分得了土地,连同广大农民自己原来所拥有的土地得到中央政府的确认,取得了土地证。同时,大多数城乡人民各自所拥有的宅基地,也拿到了土地证。 

一九五三年以后,中共中央在中国大陆大力推行“互助合作化”运动,广大农民不得不把土地、牲畜、农具入股,加入了合作社。而一九五八年的“人民公社化”运动,使农民手中的、由政府发给的、标志着所有权的“土地证”从此变成了一张废纸!农民的土地,就像工商业者(资本家)在「公私合营」运动中失去财产一样,实际上是被政府剥夺了。广大农民变成彻底的“无产者”,变成了没有任何自由、为共产党扛活的长工! 

历史事实已经证明:二十世纪五、六十年代中国共产党所进行的“社会主义试验”是不成功的,而六、七十年代所进行的“无产阶级文化大革命”对国家和人民而言,更是一场浩劫!“无产阶级文化大革命”结束之后,在广大农民的强烈要求下,中共不得不答应了农民的要求,实施土地“联产承包责任制”,农民有了种地的自主权。然而,土地的所有权却始终没有还给农民! 

由中国共产党一手操纵所制定的宪法、民法通则、土地管理法和农业法都有关于农村集体土地所有权的规定。土地财产权被虚拟地划分给 “农民集体”。而 “农民集体”只是一个抽象的、没有法律人格意义的集合群体,并不是法律关系的主体,不能具体行使对土地有效监督和管理,从此造成农村集体土地所有权虚置。 

由于共产党及其政府以“法律”形式严禁土地所有权自由买卖、出租、抵押或者以其他形式转让,使农村集体土地完全成为无法用价格来衡量的“虚拟财产”。农村集体土地所有人--“农民集体”只不过是法律上象征意义的所有者,并不能将其所有的土地衡量确定为具体的财产,更不能进行社会财产交换。土地交易权完全由政府垄断,政府通过行政审批征用土地,其实质是政府强制性地再次把公民的土地“充公、没收”。农村集体土地的最终处分权实际上由共产党及其政府来掌握和控制。只有共产党及其政府可以改变农村集体土地所有者的归属,并且对农民集体土地所有权的处分具有强制性:是否处分、怎样处分、怎样补偿都只能服从“国家意志”,“国家”征用土地的补贴是由政府确定的,不能真实地体现土地价值,是一种强制性的非市场价格,是非地租的不等价补偿。在我国土地权属关系转让上,根本上就不存在土地所有人的意志表达,也从不尊重土地所有人的合理诉求。共产党及其政府不是作为所有者这样一个法律关系的主体,与其它土地所有权人具有同样的法律地位;而是凌驾于一切其他所有权的之上仲裁者,并且具有超越法律之上的权利。共产党及其政府在对农村集体土地所有权的处分权能和使用权的转让上所进行的限制,已经离开了法律意义的财产所有权基本权能的范围。 

在共产党及其政府看来,土地增值与农民的合法权益无关,因为这些增值是在土地转为国有以后才发生的。既然是国家征用,就不存在土地的市场价格问题,而仅仅是一个对农民的生计补偿。补偿的规定是按照计划经济时代的生存环境来制定的。其中包括货币补偿和就业补偿两个方面。货币补偿相当于三年至五年平均粮食产量的价值,而就业补偿就是在城市国有或集体企业中给出一定数量的铁饭碗就业指标。但是,在改革以后,经济环境已经发生的实质性变化,城市的铁饭碗已经成为历史,使原来的就业补偿完全失去意义。结果,对农民的所谓补偿,仅剩下几年的粮食产值,根本无法解决农民的生计问题,彻底断掉了农民祖祖辈辈的生存权。土地一经国家“征用”,便身价倍增。目前北京的城郊耕地价格一般都在几十万元一亩,而一亩土地种十年的粮食,其产值充其量也不会超过三万元。有限补偿中的大部分在村集体的名义下被基层权贵们瓜分。而土地开发过程中,土地的市值飚升数十倍甚至百倍,这飚升的市值却要“归公”。实际上,农用地由民用转为公用之时,集体所有权便转化为基层权贵的实际支配权,土地流转收益的大头都落入各级政府及少数权贵的手中。 

土地是农民赖以生存的命根子,更是他们最主要的财产。由于土地被征用,农民原有的土地所有权、使用权永久性“丧失”,从而剥夺了农民在自己所有土地上按照时代的发展需要进行自我发展的“权利”。用一个农民几万元的补偿费用就买断了他们祖祖辈辈赖以为生的土地实际上是剥夺了农民的“生存权”。因为作为“财富之母”,土地的价值是不能用这点补偿费来衡量的!正是共产党及其政府所制定的极不公正的错误决定,造成数千万拆迁、移民群众由于迁居地点的恶劣条件再加上年龄、身体状况、受教育程度、劳动技能等种种原因而难以谋生。
从1979年到1997年,共产党及其政府从农村拿走2亿7千万亩土地,用于城区扩容、修路、建工厂和开发区,这笔土地以极低的价格从农民手中“买”走,中间被国家汲取了6-10万亿以上的“剪刀差”。近几年来,全国各地从省市到地县直至乡村,越权批地、利用集体土地变相搞房地产开发以及开发商与集体经济组织私下协议圈占土地等违法、违规行为越演越烈,很多地方事实上已是靠出让土地吃饭。北京的圈地运动已发展到北京周边,如某开发区,其大片土地已被北京等地的各路神仙通过各种关系瓜分干净,地价如招标拍卖每亩至少十万元以上,但是通过关系每亩只要4万元,几千亩地不能一下子出让,就化整为零分几次办。这种大家发财的好事却与世世代代生活在这里、辛勤劳作的农民毫无关系! 

尤其令人不能容忍的是中国共产党及其政府对公民生活资料的公开掠夺!中国共产党在上一世纪五十年代强制推行农业互助合作化运动、工商业社会主义改造时,打出的依据是:依照马克思列宁主义的原理,建设社会主义必须实现生产资料公有化。由于从马克思、列宁的理论里实在找不出对公民生活资料“共产”的任何理由,在很长时间内,公民的财产虽然往往被随意剥夺,却还不敢通过立法形式对公民财产进行掠夺。中华人民共和国成立以来,先后制定了四部宪法(1954年、1975年、1978年、1982年),即使在无法无天的文化大革命中,1975年制定的宪法也没有规定公民的宅基地收归国有。然而,就在打倒“四人帮”之后,共产党及其政府对文化大革命肆意侵犯公民人身、财产权利的严重问题,不进行彻底清算,反倒通过制定中华人民共和国第四部宪法(1982年),在人民群众不知晓的情况下公然宣布:“城市土地归国家所有”,“农村土地归集体所有”。从此,大多数城乡居民合法拥有的居住院落的土地所有权,一夜之间被公有化,公民最基本的生活资料从此也成了被掠夺的对象,广大老百姓从此开始遭受了一场劫难。这一“法律条款”即不尊重历史,也不符合事实,没有任何法律依据,违反法治的基本原则,完全是非法的恶法;这一行径完全是强奸民意的恶行。 

由于建设和土地开发,原住民不得不被迫搬迁,彻底打乱了他们平静、和谐的生活,并且面临着巨大的经济损失和很多生活难题。因此,对所有被拆迁的居民进行补偿是理所当然的。对被拆迁居民所拥有的房屋、土地进行财产补偿更是天经地义、不容置疑的。依照国际惯例,对搬迁居民不仅要提供住房,还必须安排好他们的工作与生活;对搬迁移民的安置补偿不仅要给足额的现金,还必须坚持“以土地补偿土地”的基本原则,所有工作必须做到“充分、及时、有效”,使移民的生活问题得到比较圆满地解决,并为他们长期的生存和发展提供必要的外部条件。这种作法充分体现了“以人为本”的基本原则。然而,在中国大陆,几十年来,特别是近十几年来,在中国共产党及其政府支持、纵容下,贪官污吏、不法奸商、黑恶势力明目张胆地以“土地是国家的”,“国家要对土地重新安排”为由,打出各种旗号“国家建设”、“规划要求”、“危房改造”、“城镇建设”、“申办奥运”…, 或者不给钱,或者以普通人难以想象的低价,通过拆迁掠夺老百姓的土地! 

十多年来,中国共产党及其政府利用手中的权力,剥夺农民的耕地和公民的土地,这是在中国大陆实现暴富最主要的途径。土地的价格按容积率和建筑面积计算,每平方米成千上万,全部收益都流入了党、政和开发商的腰包。大陆的新富人中一半以上的财富直接或间接地得益于商业性土地开发的升值。但是,在这些富人中,却看不到原来的主人。由党政哺育出来的“华远房地产”,其总经理任志强(前商业部副部长之子)的年薪达700万元,是普通劳动者的数百倍,上千倍。任志强大言不惭地声称,他给国家交纳了上百万的税金,还交了二十多万的党费。问题是他是怎么“白手起家”、“空手掏白狼”的?!原来的主人眼睁睁地看着自己的财产,转瞬间变成了共产党及其政府和开发商的摇钱树,而自己却被扫地出门,失去了世代赖以生存的根基。天下难道还有比这更不公平的事情吗? 

被拆迁、移民的群众面对如此明显的社会不公,眼看着自身的利益受到如此大的损害,一部分人甚至走到了生活完全没有着落的悲惨境地,内心充满了愤怒和仇恨。 

一些公民希望通过法律为自己讨回公道,到法院去打官司。然而,在“党领导一切”、“一党专政”的体制下,党大于法、权大于法、人治大于法治。各级法院在党、政的指使下竟然知法犯法,公开颠倒是非、混淆黑白,枉法裁判,还亲自出马,扒房驱赶不肯搬走的“钉子户”。对众多公民投诉的房地产官司法院以“于法无据”为由,拒绝受理或拒绝作出裁决。一些当事人向国家最高法院提出申诉,国家最高法院一直不理不睬-不做任何反应。司法公正是社会公正的最后一道防线。当国家各级法院无视历史和客观事实,无视约定俗成的习惯和基本法理,无视法治的根本原则,随意猥亵法律的时候,社会公正的最后一道防线早已荡然无存。 

一些公民向各级人大反映非法拆迁问题同样不能解决问题。1999年3月,医学专家、全国人大代表胡亚美院士代表北京万名被拆迁居民,在全国人大会议上提交了“特级举报信”。举报信要求人大依法行使对政府、法院的监督权,时至今日也没有下文。在这个直接涉及人民切身利益的重大问题上,人民代表大会只不过是党政的附庸、“花瓶”和“橡皮图章”。在中国即没有独立、公正的立法、司法体系,又没有言论、出版、结社自由,更没有反映情况、解决问题的渠道。这种现象难道还不值得深思吗?! 

一些群众通过各种方式、各种渠道,向中共中央、全国人大、国务院、全国政协、中共中央纪律检查委员会、国家有关部门、《人民日报》、新华社、中央电视台……,向江泽民等人反映我国违法拆迁犯罪活动。早在1995年,就有公民以特快专递方式,直接向中共中央总书记、中华人民共和国主席、中央军委主席江泽民,反映北京的违法拆迁问题。1999年,北京市万人“特级举报信”直接寄给了中国共产党中央委员会、全国人民代表大会、国务院、全国政协以及江泽民、李鹏、朱熔基、李瑞环……党政军主要负责人、高检高法负责人以及当时的国土资源部部长的周永康和建设部部长俞正声。几年过去了,非法拆迁、移民问题不仅没有解决,反而愈演愈烈。十几年来,共产党及其政府对被拆迁、移民群众的呼声充耳不闻,对被拆迁、移民群众的疾苦视而不见,对开发商的违法活动熟视无睹,对各个方面的监督反映装聋作哑。客观事实反复证明:违法拆迁、移民的根源就在中国共产党。  

在中国,土地违法案件的主体,大多就是共产党及其政府以及党政负责人。他们明目张胆地违法乱纪,无所顾忌地干预司法审判、妨碍司法公正,使受害群众的维权之路走得异常艰难。“改革开放的总设计师”邓小平在90年代初发表“南巡讲话”,全国到处建“开发区”,1万多平方公里的土地被圈入“开发区”,(至今仅开发了一成多,其余全都荒芜)土地批租和房地产开发成了我国92~93年经济虚热中的大泡沫,成了十余年来腐败丛生的重灾区。邓小平次子邓质方成立了四方房地产公司。前中共中央政治局常委、全国人大委员长李鹏在1991年任国务院总理时制定《城市房屋拆迁管理条例》,公开对抗法治原则,以权压人,使全国各地的违法拆迁愈演愈烈、受害公民告状无门。特别是近几年来,作为全国人大的委员长,对众多被拆迁公民向全国人大的举报,一直置之不理,不承担应负的法律职责。李鹏的老婆朱琳是一个贪婪的圈地者,大肆介入北京的房地产开发。北京宣武区就有很多地皮属于李鹏家族。李鹏的儿子李小鹏曾担任华能房地产公司总经理,直接参与了对老百姓的掠夺。前中共中央政治局常委、全国政协主席李瑞环,在建设全国政协办公楼时,将顺承王府从西城区“异地重建”到朝阳区,严重破坏了古都风貌。从他到天津市任职时日起至今,天津市在拆迁中的所作所为与北京市完全同出一辙。北京一房地产巨商大拆黄金地段的胡同四合院,并行贿到处要地,打的就是他的招牌。中共中央政治局常委、前北京市市委书记、前市长贾庆林组织策划了“平安大道”、“广安大街”的拆迁。其老婆林幼芳掌握的武夷房地产开发公司,直接参与了圈地运动。随后贾庆林又与市长刘淇、副市长汪光焘一起,打着“危房改造”、“申办奥运”的幌子开始指挥新一轮的掠夺。由于只能拿到很少的补偿款,根本不可能在城近郊区买房,大多数被拆迁居民被迫到偏远地区安家。这些地方大多没有连接到正规的自来水管网,生活用水完全靠汲取地下水供应。而北京大部分地区的浅层地下水因为不注意环境保护,已经被污染而无法饮用,这些被拆迁群众的生命、健康受到严重的摧残。贾庆林之流完全不顾人民的死活,可是却依然飞黄腾达!中共中央政治局委员、湖北省委书记俞正声到湖北后的两年里,利用手中权力先后把武汉东湖开发区的土地以行政划拨的方式拨给邓质方和彭真的儿子傅洋,总计达3000多亩,致使世代居住在此地的农民被迫拆迁,流落他乡。 

中国共产党即当运动员,又当裁判员,还要由自己制定游戏规则,利用手中的权力,随心所欲地制定恶法并暴力推行。在改革开放的过程中,从价格的双轨制到土地批租,从金融改革到股份制改造……,他们相互勾结、横征暴敛、不择手段、欺压百姓。他们靠权权交易、权钱交易等非法手段来收敛钱财、攫取人民的财产。现在全国不到10%的富人占据了全国60%的国民收入,其中的财富又集中在几万权贵的手中,而全国最贫困的10%人口只拥有全国国民收入的5%!成百上千万退休职工在“低工资、高积累”的政策下为共产党、为国家贡献了一辈子,他们年青时得到了信誓旦旦的承诺:党和国家提供住房、退休金和医疗费,可是到老了却在为住房、看病甚至为吃饭发愁!数千万国企职工被迫下岗,买断工龄,农转工首当其冲,再就业成了他们生活中的头等大事,然而在就业形势极其严峻的情况下,找工作的路走起来却异常艰难!那些年龄大、文化低,负担重的失业人员更是难上加难!现在国有企业的职工也都变成了“合同工”,“主人公地位”早就成了一句空话。所谓的“全民所有”、“集体所有”的财产已经成了党政少数人的囊中之物。九亿农民由于共产党所制定的歧视政策,饱受到盘剥和践踏,众多农民被迫以工补农,把农业收入的大部交给政府,而靠打工和副业收入来补贴家用,勉强得以应付苛捐杂税的压力。全国一亿二千万流动人口中大部分是农民和失业人员,打工者处处受到歧视。共产党现行的土地政策侵害了上十亿公民的切身利益!因为“土地开发”使亿万农民完全丧失了生活来源,有的甚至成为“流民”!中国今日所谓的“征地”,是世界上最黑暗、最腐败、最不公平、最厚颜无耻的土地分配手段,其实质是共产党及其政府利用国家的权力,从公民手中抢来最有价值的土地,在特权者中间瓜分。 

现在共产党及其政府控制着全国绝大部份资源、掌握着不受监督的绝对权力,营造了一个党大于法、权大于法的社会,随心所欲地胡作非为。共产党及其政府对于弱势群体无理汲取,强迫他们承担着党政的统治成本和现代化构图的实验成本,打出“摸着石头过河”、“让一部分人先富起来”的口号,以不合法、不正当、不公平的手段掠取国家、集体和公民的财产,让一批贪官污吏、不法之徒大发不义之财;以 "改革开放过程中出现的新问题"、"改革需要一部分人付出代价"为说词进行欺骗;以"坚持正确舆论导向"为口实进行新闻封锁;打出"稳定压倒一切"的大旗进行包庇。共产党权贵们将权力与资本相结合,使中国走上了畸形的经济发展之路,却自欺欺人地宣称是中国特色的社会主义,自诩代表人民利益。江泽民大言不惭地声称他们代表着最大多数人民的根本利益。然而,当几亿公民的切身利益、合法权益遭受百分之百的侵害的时候,当这种侵害延续时间长达几十年、受害群众怨声载道的时候,他们却依然充耳不闻、视而不见,这样的"领导"还能代表人民吗?事实上,他们就是实施恶法的罪魁祸首!共产党宣布自己的职责是代表先进生产力,实质上是置弱势群体于不顾,以"代表先进生产力的发展要求"为名,实行官场支配市场的官商一体的专制制度。 

众所周知,执政党和政府的首要职责,也是最主要的职责是维护社会的公平与正义,实施法治,保证社会生活的正常秩序。共产党执政以来,前三十年以阶级斗争为纲,造成了持续不断的人整人,人民群众一直生活在莫名的恐惧之中,而“改革、开放”的二十几年来,共产党打着“以经济建设为中心”、“发展是第一要务”的旗号,掠夺老百姓的财产。这种掠夺是在没有公共监督和民主参与的前提下进行的,因此,其结果不会被世人所承认,由此形成的产权配置并没有合法性。权贵们的既得利益,包括私有财产在内,几乎百分之百属于非法所得,或者是由这种非法所得积累成的原始资本衍生出来的灰色收入。为了维护到手的既得利益,他们甚至不惜动用机枪和坦克来镇压赤手空拳、要求反腐败的群众。他们把自己的享乐建筑在别人的痛苦之上,不断地营造他们自己及其子孙的安乐窝,同时造成了千千万万的老百姓世世代代受穷。他们视群众如草芥,把自己打扮成对百姓进行施舍的救世主,而实际上他们是骑在人民头上为非作歹的太上皇。 

今天的中国共产党已由颇具理想色彩、充满革命激情的政治集团,蜕变成经济上贪得无厌、政治上无创新追求的保守势力。他们已失去了对社会讲诚信的能力和勇气。 

在现代法治社会里,公民的财产权被视为人权实现的基础,具有神圣不可侵犯的地位。因为财产权既是个人谋生以及改善生存条件的手段,也是他免于被压迫、被奴役的基本保障。财产权是生命权的延续,是公民的自由与尊严的保证。财产权和生命权、自由权一道构成了基本人权。而财产权则是人权的核心。公民只有拥有了财产权,才可以过上有尊严的、体面的生活。公民财产神圣不可侵犯的原则构成了现代民主政治最牢固的道德基础。 共产党及其政府剥夺公民的财产实际上就是剥夺公民的生命权和自由权,这是对人权的粗暴践踏!人权是人与生俱来的基本权利,对一部分人的人权侵害就是对所有人的人权侵害。 

一切由于移民、拆迁而受到无端侵害的中华人民共和国公民都应该积极行动起来,不仅要向开发商索赔,更要理直气壮地向共产党及其政府索赔,夺回自己的合法财产,进行健康索赔和精神索赔,并追究一切违法者的法律责任,直至刑事责任! 

依据法治的原则,对违法行为进行惩罚就必须使受罚者有痛苦的感觉,必须实行使侵权者倾家荡产的索赔,让那些给别人造成伤害的人有一个深刻的教训。否则就是纵容! 

共产党及其政府用暴政的方式制定了歧视性“降低人格的法律”(这些法律本质上是恶法),他们要维护歧视性的法律和由歧视性法律而产生的社会秩序。在“降低人格的法律”下,拆迁移民受到不公正的对待,受到歧视和压迫。在歧视、压迫与暴政的不公面前,一切被压迫的人们应该不屈服于权势,坚持争取自己被剥夺的正当权益,对充满歧视、不公、压迫和剥削的恶法不予承认和合作,对强权者不予合作,不屈服于不公正的对待。 

拆迁移民为了自己的生命权和生存权,为了捍卫自己的合法权益,在投告无门和忍无可忍的情况下,群体抗议便成为他们唯一的自保手段。拆迁移民的斗争是中国政治民主化进程中非常重要的一股力量,也是一个非常重要的突破口,因为这场斗争背后包含着强大的、最能得到社会广泛支持的道义力量。 

万众一心 (北京)
年3月1日写, 3月10日改 
 

来源:新世纪


 
 

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This is an internet version of my writings on "Historical China" (2004 version assembled by http://www.third-millennium-library.com/index.html), "Republican China", and "Communist China". There is no set deadline as to the date of completion for "Communist China" (Someone had saved a copy of my writing on the June 4th [1989] Massacre at http://www.scribd.com/doc/2538142/June-4th-Tiananmen-Massacre-in-Beijing-China). The work on "Historical China" will be after "Republican China". The current emphasis is on "Republican China", now being re-outlined to be inclusive of 1911 to 1955 and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre-1911 to 1919, 1919 to 1928, 1929 to 1937, 1937 to 1945, and 1945-1955. This webmaster plans to make the contents of "Republican China 1929-1937, A Complete Untold History" into a publication soon. The original plan for completion in year 2007 was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of 1911-1955. For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.htm page. The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese traditions, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community. Significance of the historical work on this website could probably be made into a parallel to the cognizance of the Chinese revolutionary forerunners of the 1890s: After 250 years of Manchu forgery and repression, the revolutionaries in the late 19th century re-discovered the Manchu slaughters and literary inquisition against the ethnic-Han Chinese via books like "Three Rounds Of Slaughter At Jiading In 1645", "Ten Day Massacre At Yangzhou" and Jiang Lianqi's "Dong Hua Lu" [i.e., "Lineage Extermination Against Luu Liuliang Family"]. It is this Webmaster's hope that some future generations of the Chinese patriots, including to-be-awoken sons and grandsons of arch-thieve Chinese Communist rulers [who had sought material pursuits in the West], after reflecting on the history of China, would return to China to do something for the goodness of the country.

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